Charles R. Rinaldo, Jr., PhD
Professor of Pathology

Dr. Rinaldo is a member of the Division of Clinical Microbiology and the Director of the UPMC Clinical Virology Laboratory.

Office Location:
UPMC Clinical Lab Building
Room 6026
3477 Eular Way
Pittsburgh PA 15213
Contact Information:
Office Telephone: 412-647-3764
Fax: 412-647-3755

Clinical Expertise

Dr. Rinaldo's UPMC Clinical Virology Laboratory is responsible for diagnosing viral infections for UPMC hospitals and clinicians. It is involved in several studies on new diagnostic approaches in clinical virology, respiratory virus infections, and the epidemiology of influenza virus infection.

Research Expertise

Dr. Rinaldo is interested in the area of HIV/AIDS, herpesvirus and influenza virus research. He is the principal investigator of a large study of the natural history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in men who have sex with men in Pittsburgh, which is part of the national Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. His major research is on the role of dendritic cells (DC) and T cells in the immunopathogenesis of HIV infection. He has most recently shown that CD8+ T cells can prime antiviral T cells as part of an approach to developing immunotherapies for attacking the residual reservoir of HIV in persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART).

A second area of interest is infection of professional antigen presenting cells with HIV that is important in the transfer of virus to CD4+ T cells. Dr. Rinaldoís recent work suggests that this pathway is defective in persons who are able to control HIV infection for many years without ART.

A third area of interest is on T cell responses to the etiologic agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), termed Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus or human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV-8). Dr. Rinaldo's laboratory has shown that HHV-8 infects several subsets of B cells that produce factors which drive KS, and that T cell immunity is central to control of this HHV-8 infection and development of KS.

Dr. Rinaldo's clinical research laboratory is involved in several studies on new molecular diagnostic approaches in clinical virology and the effects of vaccines on influenza illness in the community.

Dr. Rinaldo also serves as Chair of the Department of Infectious Diseases and Microbiology in the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health.

NIH Research

View Dr. Rinaldo's NIH RePORT on

Selected Publications

View Dr. Rinaldo's publications on PubMed

  • DeLucia DC, Rinaldo CR, Rappocciolo G. Inefficient HIV-1 trans Infection of CD4+ T Cells by Macrophages from HIV-1 Nonprogressors Is Associated with Altered Membrane Cholesterol and DC-SIGN. J Virol. 2018 Jun 13;92(13).
  • Moshayedi P, Thomas D, Rinaldo CR, Moossy JJ, Maroon JC, Murdoch GH, Hamilton RL, Homayoun H. Subacute histopathological features in a case of varicella zoster virus myelitis and post-herpetic neuralgia. Spinal Cord Ser Cases. 2018 Apr 4;4:33.
  • Benson CA, Andersen JW, Macatangay BJC, Mailliard RB, Rinaldo CR Jr, Read S, Bozzolo DR, Purdue L, Jennings C, Keefer MC, Glesby M, Tebas P, Russell AF, Martin J, Annunziato P, Popmihajlov Z, Lennox JL. Safety and Immunogenicity of Zoster Vaccine Live in HIV-Infected Adults with CD4+ Cell Counts Above 200 Cells/mL Virologically Suppressed on Antiretroviral Therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 Mar 26.
  • Rappocciolo G, Jais M, Piazza PA, DeLucia DC, Jenkins FJ, Rinaldo CR.Human Herpesvirus 8 Infects and Replicates in Langerhans Cells and Interstitial Dermal Dendritic Cells and Impairs Their Function. J Virol. 2017 Sep 27;91(20).
  • Sanyal A, Mailliard RB, Rinaldo CR, Ratner D, Ding M, Chen Y, Zerbato JM, Giacobbi NS, Venkatachari NJ, Patterson BK, Chargin A, Sluis-Cremer N, Gupta P. Novel assay reveals a large, inducible, replication-competent HIV-1 reservoir in resting CD4+ T cells.Nat Med. 2017 Jul;23(7):885-889.
  • Smith KN, Mailliard RB, Piazza PA, Fischer W, Korber BT, Fecek RJ, Ratner D, Gupta P, Mullins JI, Rinaldo CR. Effective Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Targeting of Persistent HIV-1 during Antiretroviral Therapy Requires Priming of Naive CD8+ T Cells. MBio. 2016 May 31;7(3).
  • Macatangay BJ, Riddler SA, Wheeler ND, Spindler J, Lawani M, Hong F, Buffo MJ, Whiteside TL, Kearney MF, Mellors JW, Rinaldo CR. Therapeutic Vaccination With Dendritic Cells Loaded With Autologous HIV Type 1-Infected Apoptotic Cells. J Infect Dis. 2016 May 1;213(9):1400-9.
  • Zaccard, C.R., Watkins, S.C., Fecek, R.J., Kalinski, P., Salter, R.D., Ayyavoo, V., Rinaldo, C.R., and Mailliard, R.B. CD40 ligand induces networks of tunneling nanotubes exclusively in dendritic cells activated by mediators of type-1 immunity. J Immunol. 194:1047-1056, 2015.
  • Zimmerman RK, Rinaldo CR, Nowalk MP, Balasubramani GK, Moehling KK, Bullotta A, Eng HF, Raviotta JM, Sax TM, Wisniewski S. Viral infections in outpatients with medically attended acute respiratory illness during the 2012-2013 influenza season. BMC Infect Dis. 15:87, 2015.
  • Knowlton, E., Rappocciolo, G., Lepone, L.M., Nadgir, S.V., Bullotta, A., Berendam, S.J., Li, J., Reinhart, T.A., Jenkins, F.J., and Rinaldo, C.R. Human herpesvirus 8 induces polyfunctional B lymphocytes that drive Kaposi's sarcoma. mBio 2014 Sep 2;5(5):e01277-14.
  • Zimmerman, R.K., Rinaldo, C.R., Nowalk, M.P., Balasubramani, G.K., Thompson, M.G., Bullotta, A., Susick, M., Wisniewski, S. Detection of influenza virus infection using two PCR methods. Adv Virol. 2014:274679, 2014.