Theresa L. Whiteside, PhD
Professor of Pathology, Immunology, and Otolaryngology

Dr. Whiteside is a professor of Pathology, Immunology, and Otolaryngology and a member of the University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute.
Office Location:
Hillman Cancer Center
Suite 1.32
5117 Centre Ave, Suite 1.32d
Pittsburgh PA, 15232
Contact Information:
Office Telephone: 412-624-0096
Fax: 412-624-0264


  • PhD - Columbia University, 1967

Clinical Expertise

I am a clinical immunologist with many years of experience in evaluating human immune-mediated diseases. For many years, I directed an immunopathology laboratory performing a broad spectrum of immunodiagnostic assays. Later, I directed an immunomonitoring laboratory responsible for serial testing of patients with cancer and also a cGMP cell products laboratory which generated cellular products for immunotherapy of patients with cancer and HIV.

Research Expertise

My research expertise is in cellular and molecular cancer immunology. I work with various subsets of human immune cells and study their functional impairments in patients with cancer. Tumor-mediated escape mechanisms are of special interest as are surrogate immunologic markers of prognosis and response to therapy in patients with cancer.

NIH Research

View Dr. Whiteside's NIH RePORT on

Selected Publications

View Dr. Whiteside's publications on PubMed

  • Szczepanski MJ, Szajnik M, Welsh A, Foon KA, Whiteside TL, Boyiadzis M. Interleukin-15 enhances NK cell cytotoxicity in patients with acute myeloid leukemia by upregulating the activating NK cell receptors. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 59(1):73-79, 2010.
  • Whiteside TL. Immune Responses to Malignancies. J. Allergy Clin Immunol., 125: S272-83, 2010.
  • Mandapathil M, Hilldorfer B, Szczepanski MJ, Czystowska M, Szajnik M, Ren J, Lang S, Jackson EK, Gorelik E, Whiteside TL. Generation and accumulation of immunosuppressive adenosine by human CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg). J. Biological Chemistry, 285: 7176-7186, 2010.
  • Czystowska M, Strauss L, Bergmann C, Szajnik M, Rabinowich H, Whiteside TL. Reciprocal granzyme/perforin-mediated death of human regulatory and responder T cells is regulated by interleukin-2 (IL-2). J. Mol. Med., 88: 577-588, 2010.
  • Ragni MV, Moore CG, Soadwa K, Nalesnik MA, Zajko AB, Cortese-Hassett A, Whiteside TL, Hart S, Zeevi A, Li J, Shaikh OS; The HHH Study Group. Impact of HIV on liver fibrosis in men with hepatitis C infection and haemophilia. Haemophilia, 17(1): 103-111, 2010.
  • Macatangay BJC, Szajnik ME, Whiteside TL, Riddler SA, Rinaldo CR. Regulatory T cell suppression of GAG-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctional response after therapeutic vaccination of HIV-1-infected patients on ART. PLoS ONE, 5(3): e9852, 2010.
  • Whiteside TL. Inhibiting the inhibitors: evaluating agents targeting cancer immunosuppression. Exp. Opin Biol. Ther., 10: 1019-35, 2010.
  • Szajnik M, Czystowska M, Szczepanski MJ, Mandapathil M, Whiteside TL. Tumor-derived microvesicles induce, expand and up-regulate biological activities of human regulatory T cells (Treg). PLoS ONE, 5(7): e11469, 2010.
  • Mandapathil M, Szczepanski MJ, Szajnik M, Ren J, Jackson EK, Johnson JT, Gorelik E, Lang S, Whiteside TL. Adenosine and prostaglandin E2 cooperate in the suppression of immune responses mediated by adaptive regulatory T cells. J. Biol. Chem, 285: 27571-80, 2010.
  • Whiteside TL, Griffin DL, Stanson J, Gooding W, McKenna D, Sumstad D, Kadidlo D, Gee A, Durett A, Lindblad R, Wood D, Styers D. Shipping of therapeutic somatic cell products. Cytotherapy, 13(2): 201-13, 2010.
  • Okada, H., Kalinski, P., Ueda, R., Hoji, A., Kohanbash, G., Donegan, T., Mintz, A., Engh, J., Bartlett, D., Brown, C., Zeh, H., Holtzman, M., Reinhart, T., Whiteside, T.L., Butterfield, L.H., Hamilton, R., Potter, D., Pollack, I., Salazar, A. and Lieberman, F. Induction of CD8+ T-cell responses against novel glioma-associated antigen peptides and clinical activity by vaccinations with alpha-type-1-polarized dendritic cells and poly ICLC in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. J. Clin. Oncol., 29(3): 330-336, 2010.
  • Schuler PJ, Trellakis S, Greve J, Bas M, Bergmann C, Bolke E, Lehnerdt G, Mattheis S, Albers AE, Brandau S, Lang S, Whiteside TL, Bier H, Hoffmann KT. In vitro chemosensitivity of head and neck cancer cell lines. Eur. J. Med. Res., 15: 337-344, 2010.
  • Schuler PJ, Borger V, Bolke E, Habermehl D, Matuschek C, Wild CA, Greve J, Bas M, Schilling B, Bergmann C, Trellakis S, Budach W, Gauler T, Brandau S, Lang S, Whiteside TL, Sorg RV, Hoffmann TK. Dendritic cell generation and CD4+CD25highFOXP3+ regulatory T cells in human head and neck carcinoma during radio-chemotherapy. Eur. J. Med. Res., 16(2): 57-62, 2011.
  • Czystowska M, Szczepanski MJ, Szajnik M, Quadrini K, Brandwein H, Hadden JW, Whiteside TL. Mechanisms of T-cell protection from death by IRX-2, a new immunotherapeutic. Cancer Immunol. Immunother., 60(4): 495-506, 2011.
  • Whiteside TL, Mandapathil M, Szczepanski M, Szajnik M. Mechanisms of tumor escape from the immune system: Adenosine-producing Treg, exosomes and tumor-associated TLRs. Bulletin du Cancer: Special Issue on Tumor Microenvironment, 98(2): E25-31, 2011.
  • Dumitru CA, Gholaman H, Trellakis S, Bruderek K, Dominas N, Gu X, Bankfalvi A, Whiteside TL, Lang S, Brandau S. Tumor-derived macrophage migration inhibitory factor modulates the biology of head and neck cancer cells via neutrophil activation. Int. J. Cancer, 129(4): 859-869, 2011.
  • Bauernhofer T, Pichler M, Wieckovski E, Stanson J, Aigelsreiter A, Griesbacher A, Groselj-Strele A, Linecker A, Samonigg H, Langner C, Whiteside TL. Prolactin receptor is a negative prognostic factor in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. Br. J. Cancer., 104(10): 1641-1648, 2011.
  • Schuler PJ, Harasymczuk M, Schilling B, Lang S, Whiteside TL. Separation of human CD4+CD39+ T cells by magnetic beads reveals two phenotypically and functionally different subsets. J. Immunol. Meth., 369: 59-68, 2011.
  • Mandapathil M., Whiteside TL. Targeting human regulatory T cells (Treg) in patients with cancer: blocking of adenosine-prostaglandin E2 cooperation. Exp Opin Biol Ther, 11(9): 1203-1214, 2011.
  • Butterfield LH, Palucka AK, Britten CM, Dhodapkar MV, Håkansson L, Janetzki S, Kawakami Y, Kleen TO, Lee PP, Maccalli C, Maecker HT, Maino VC, Maio M, Malyguine A, Masucci G, Pawelec G, Potter DM, Rivoltini L, Salazar LG, Schendel DJ, Slingluff CL Jr, Song W, Stroncek DF, Tahara H, Thurin M, Trinchieri G, van Der Burg SH, Whiteside TL, Wigginton JM, Marincola F, Khleif S, Fox BA, Disis ML. Recommendations from the iSBTc-SITC/FDA/NCI Workshop on Immunotherapy Biomarkers. Clin Cancer Res, 17(10):3064-3076, 2011.
  • Szczepanski MJ, Szajnik M, Welsh A, Whiteside TL, Boyiadzis M. Blast-derived microvesicles in sera from patients with acute myeloid leukemia suppress natural killer cell function via membrane-associated transforming growth factor-β1. Haematologica, 96(9): 1302-1309, 2011.
  • Schilling B, Harasymczuk M, Schuler P, Egan JE, Whiteside TL. IRX-2 a novel biologic, favors the expansion of T effector over T regulatory cells in a human tumor microenvironment model. J. Mol. Med., 90(2): 139-147, 2012.
  • Visus C, Wang YY, Lozano-Leon A, Ferris RL, Silver S, Szczepanski MJ, Brand RE, Ferrone CR, Whiteside TL, Ferrone S, DeLeo A, Wang X. Targeting ALDHbright human carcinoma initiating cells with ALDH1A1-specific CD8+ T cells. Clin. Cancer Res., 17(19): 6174-6184, 2011.
  • Whiteside TL, Butterfield LH, Naylor PH, Egan JE, Hadden JW, Baltzer L, Wolf GT, Berinstein NL. A short course of neoadjuvant IRX-2 induces changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. [Epub ahead of print, Nov. 23, 2011]. doi: 10.1007/s00262-011-1136-x, 2011.
  • Whiteside TL, Mandapathil M, Schuler P. The Role of the Adenosinergic pathway in immunosuppression mediated by human regulatory T cells (Treg). Curr. Medicinal Chem., 18: 5217-5223, 2011.
  • Berinstein NL, Wolf GT, Naylor PH, Baltzer L, Egan JE, Brandwein HJ, Whiteside TL, Goldstein LC, El-Naggar A, Badoual C, Fridman WH, White JM, Hadden JW. Increased lymphocyte infiltration in patients with head and neck cancer treated with the IRX-2 immunotherapy regimen. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. [Epub ahead of print, Nov 6, 2011]. doi: 10.1007/s00262-011-1134-z.
  • Schaefer C, Butterfield LH, Lee S, Kim GG, Visus C, Albers A, Kirkwood JM, Whiteside TL. Function but not phenotype of melanoma peptide-specific CD8(+) T cells correlate with survival in a multi-epitope peptide vaccine trial (ECOG 1696). Int. J. Cancer, [Epub ahead of print Oct. 24, 2011]. doi: 10.1002/ijc.26481.
  • Schuler PJ, Boeckers P, Engers R, Boelke E, Bas M, Greve J, Dumitru CA, Lehnerdt GF, Ferris RL, Andrade Filho PA, Brandau S, Lang S, Whiteside TL, Hoffmann TK. EGFR-specific T cell frequencies correlate with EGFR expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. J. Transl. Med., 9:168, 2011.
  • Hoffmann TK, Trellakis S, Okulicz K, Schuler P, Greve J, Arnolds J, Bergmann C, Bas M, Lang S, Lehnerdt G, Brandau S, Mattheis S, Scheckenbach K, Finn OJ, Whiteside TL, Sonkoly E. Cyclin B1 expression and p53 status in squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Anticancer Res., 31(10):3151-3157, 2011.
  • Rahma OE, Ashtar E, Czystowska M, Szajnik ME, Wieckowski E, Bernstein S, Herrin VE, Shams MA, Steinberg SM, Merino M, Gooding W, Visus C, Deleo AB, Wolf JK, Bell JG, Berzofsky JA, Whiteside TL, Khleif SN. A gynecologic oncology group phase II trial of two p53 peptide vaccine approaches: subcutaneous injection and intravenous pulsed dendritic cells in high recurrence risk ovarian cancer patients. Cancer Immunol. Immunother. 61(3): 373-84, 2012.
  • Whiteside TL. Disarming suppressor cells to improve immunotherapy. Cancer Immunol. Immunother., 61(2): 283-288, 2012.
  • Baskic D, Vujanovic L, Arsenijevic N, Whiteside TL, Myers E, Vujanovic N. Suppression of natural killer-cell and dendritic-cell apoptotic tumoricidal activity in head and neck cancer patients. Head and Neck, In Press, 2012.
  • Kato H, Whiteside TL. Expression of IL-10 and IL-10 receptors on peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med., 36: 144-151, 2011.
  • Schilling B, Halstead E, Schuler P, Harasymczuk M, Egan J, Whiteside TL. IRX-2, a novel immunotherapeutic, enhances and protects NK-cell functions in cancer patients. Cancer Immunol. Immunother., In Press, 2012. doi: 10.1007/s00262-011-1197-x.
  • Kotsakis A, Harasymczuk M, Schilling B, Georgoulias V, Argiris A, Whiteside TL. Myeloid-derived suppressor cell measurements in fresh and cryopreserved blood samples. J. Immunol. Meth., In Press, 2012.
  • Schuler PJ, Schilling B, Harasymczuk M, Hoffmann T, Johnson J, Lang Stephan, Whiteside TL. Phenotypic and functional characteristics of ATP-hydrolysing CD+CD39+ Treg subsets in patients with cancer. Eur. J. Immunol., In Press, 2012.
  • Whiteside TL. What are regulatory T cells (Treg) regulating in cancer and why? Sem. Cancer Biol., In Press, 2012.
  • Whiteside TL. Immune modulation of T cells and natural killer cells by tumor-derived exosomes. In: Emerging Concepts of Tumor Exosome-Mediated Cell-Cell Communication. (Ed) Springer, New York, NY, In Press, 2011.
  • Whiteside TL, Robinson BWS, June CH, Lotze MT. Tumor Immunology. In: 4th Edition of Clinical Immunology: Principles and Practice. (Eds) Rich RR, Fleisher TA, Shearer WT, et al. Elsevier, London, In Press, 2012.
  • Lotze MT, Robinson BWS, June CH, Whiteside TL. Tumor Immunotherapy. In: 4th Edition of Clinical Immunology: Principles and Practice. (Eds) Rich RR, Fleisher TA, Shearer WT, et al. Elsevier, London, In Press, 2012.
  • Stroncek D, Berlyne D, Fox B, Gee A, Heimfeld S, Lindblad R, Loper K, McKenna D Jr, Rooney C, Sabatino M, Wagner E, Whiteside TL, Wood D, Heath-Mondoro T. Develoments in clinical cell therapy. Cytotherapy, 12: 425-428, 2010.
  • Mitchell MS, Yu MC, Whiteside TL. The tyranny of statistics in medicine: A critique of unthinking adherence to an arbitrary p value. Cancer Immunol. Immunother, 59(8):1137-1140, 2010.
  • Whiteside TL, Gulley JL, Clay TM, Tsang KY. Editorial: Immunologic monitoring of cellular immune responses in cancer vaccine therapy. J Biomed. Biotechnol., 2011: 370374, 2011.